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Measuring Democracy – Reports on press freedom by Reporters Without Borders – Artur Studies Victoria

Reporters Without Borders are another source of information on the state of press freedom. The RSF report which is held annually in terms of content and subject matter similar to reports CPJ and IPI. The area covered, as in the above sources are the legislative framework in which media operate, legal restrictions on access to information, restrictions on publication materials related to some "sensitive" issues, the presence and extent of the laws against defamation. They also record issues as government interference editorial policy and staff of media and pressure from government institutions such as financial and legal pressures, restrictions on dissemination and publication resources and other types of harassment that can be interpreted as pressure and obstruction of the media. The report includes issues such as arrests and detentions of journalists, reporters trials for different reasons, attacks and harassment of journalists and, eventually, death of journalists.

The number of countries included in the report is 149, and divided into 5 regions. The report gave no information on who provides the information for each country, or how to make reports. Almost everyone who has said for the CPJ and IPI can also be said from this source. The reports are descriptive and focus only on the identification problems. The reports will depend on the type of problem that is present in different countries. There is no common pattern in relation to the level of detail of information submitted by different countries in the report. Some reports tend to contain significant levels of detail in the description of individual cases, while others do. The reports do not have a common structure and are not made in accordance with all rules observed. Indicators have not and do not compare countries, or give ratings. The reports include chapters that deal with the murders of journalists, attacks on journalists, arrest and detention of journalists and the pressure and obstruction of their business from the government side.

However, the RSF report has five groups of countries regarding the level of press freedom. Countries are assigned to each category according to the perceived state of press freedom, but the criteria for the assignment given.

The categories are:
1. Good location;
2. Satisfactory situation;
3. significant problems;
4. Difficult circumstances and
5. Very serious situation.

As the IPI and CPJ, RSF are a good source of raw material, have fairly extensive narrative, the three comprise a large number of cases and between them cover around than 180 countries, and data from the three sources are available for around 140 countries. All reports are available on the Internet, for the IPI from 1996 to 2001, by CPJ in 2000 and 2001 and by RSF in 2001. Countries grouped by region to be included in the report of RSF in 2001 were:
In the Americas: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, USA, Venezuela.

In Asia: Australia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Bhutan Cambodia, China, East Timor, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, New Zealand, North Korea, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

Europe: Albania, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, United Kingdom, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia.

In the Middle East and North Africa: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Authority Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen.

In Africa: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Central African Republic Chad Comoros Islands Congo DR Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, South Africa Tanzania Togo, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Zambia.

Data from the three sources are descriptive, and only record the facts, or, more precisely the problems that occurred in the countries included. They have no track list and do not assess the situation of particular area. The reports only recorded problems and therefore not all reports contain information about the same issues. Since the creation of the measuring scale may be more sensitive then recording the presence or absence of any event is not likely to succeed. Therefore the similar approach was used to Artificial Intelligence, Human Rights Watch and the ICFTU could be used here.

The set of indicators for measuring press freedom data from these three sources can include the following indicators:
1. The deaths of the journalists (in the performance of their work)
2. Arrests and detentions of journalists (including trials for different positions)
3. Attacks on journalists and harassment of journalists (all types of violence against journalists, regardless of the source and character)
4. Existence of legal restrictions on freedom of press (the laws defamation, laws that restrict access to information and restrict the publication of certain information)
5. Censorship and prohibition of the media
6. The pressures on the media, interference in and obstruction of the activities of the media (the financial pressures, restrictions on publication and dissemination resources, positions of responsibility and damages, interference in editorial policy).

The measurement scale could, as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch and the ICFTU, could have three points. 0 to indicate the absence of some types of constraints. 0.5 to indicate the presence that was not widespread and was not the result of a deliberate or not deliberate to avoid such events. Result 1 indicates a widespread presence, systematic occurrence of the institutions of government and government's unwillingness to intervene.

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