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Eli Whitney, Jr

Whitney was born in Westborough, Massachusetts on December 8, 1765, the eldest child of Eli Whitney Sr., a prosperous farmer. His mother, Elizabeth Fay of Westborough, died when he was eleven. [Citation needed] At the age of fourteen years operated a nail operation profitable manufacturing in the workshop of his father during the Revolution War. Because his stepmother opposed his desire to attend college, Whitney worked as a laborer Agricultural and schoolteacher to save money. He prepared for Yale at Leicester Academy (now Becker College) and under the tutelage of Rev.Elizur Goodrich of Durham, Connecticut came into the class of 1789, and graduated Phi Beta Kappa in 1792. Whitney expected to study law, but, being without funds, he accepted an offer to go to Carolina South as a private tutor. Instead of arriving at their destination, he was convinced to visit Georgia. In the last years of the eighteenth century, Georgia was a magnet for New England seeking their fortunes (its Revolutionary era governor had been Lyman Hall, a migrant from Connecticut). When he first sailed for South Carolina, among his fellow are the widow and family of Revolutionary hero, General Nathanael Greene of Rhode Island. Mrs. Greene invited Whitney to visit her Georgia plantation, Mulberry Grove. Her plantation manager and husband-it-was Phineas Miller, another graduate of Connecticut migrants and Yale (Class of 1785), who would become Whitney's business partner.
Whitney is most famous for two innovations that further divides the United States in the 19th century: the cotton gin (1793), and his advocacy of interchangeable parts. In the South, the cotton gin revolutionized the way cotton is harvested and strengthened slavery. While in the North, the adoption of interchangeable parts revolutionized manufacturing, and time contributed greatly to his victory in the Civil War.
Career inventions
interchangeable parts
Article Home: interchangeable parts
While Whitney is credited with inventing popular a rifle that could be manufactured with interchangeable parts, the idea predates him. The idea is credited to Jean Baptiste Vaquette of Gribeauval, a French striker, and credits for finally perfecting the array "system" or American system manufacturing, is given by the historian Merritt Roe Smith Captain John H. City Council and historian Diana Muir writing in Reflections in Bullough Pond Simeon North. In From the American system to mass production, the historian David A. Hounshell described how the idea of Gribeauval to spread from France to the colonies via two routes: Honor Blanc through his friend Thomas Jefferson, and Luis de Grandes Tousard, another French striker was instrumental in the establishment of West Point, teaching of the young officers of the Continental Army and the establishment of arsenals in Springfield and Harpers Ferry.
In late 1790, Whitney was on the verge of bankruptcy and litigation gin Cotton had left him deeply in debt. His New Haven cotton gin factory had burned to the ground, and litigation sapped his remaining resources. The Revolution French had ignited new conflicts between Britain, France and the United States. The new American administration, aware of the need to prepare for war, began to rearm. The War Department issued contracts for the manufacture of 10,000 guns. Whitney, who never had a gun in his life, won a contract in January of 1798 to deliver 10-15000 rifles in 1800. Interchangeable parts had not mentioned at that time. Ten months later, Treasury Secretary Wolcott sent him a "brochure of foreigners in weapons techniques, "possibly one of the reports of Honor Blanc, after Whitney started talking about trade. After a maximum of 1799-1801 expenditure in litigation cotton gin, Whitney began promoting the idea of interchangeable parts, and even organized a demonstration concept of the public to save time. Failure to comply with the contract until 1809, but then spent the rest of his life to know the idea of exchange.
advocates Whitney has said that he invented the American system of manufacturing – the combination of machinery, interchangeable parts, and the underlying division of labor the nation's subsequent industrial revolution. While there is convincing evidence that he failed to achieve interchangeability, use of machinery and division specialized work are well documented. When the government complained that Whitney rifle price compared unfavorably with those produced in government arsenals, Whitney was able to calculate an actual price per musket by including fixed costs such as insurance and machinery, which the government had not included. He did contributions early in both the concept of cost accounting, and the concept of the efficiency of private industry.
Cotton gin
Main article: cotton gin
Cotton Gin Patent. Shows sawtooth leaves gin, which were not part of Whitney's original patent.
A cotton gin on display at the Eli Whitney Museum.
The cotton gin is a mechanical device that removes cotton seed, a process which, so far of his invention, has been very laborious. 'Gin' The word is actually short for engine. The cotton gin was a wooden drum stuck with hooks, that pulled the cotton fibers through a mesh. Cottonseed does not fit through the mesh and fell outside. Whitney occasionally told a story I was thinking on an improved method of sowing cotton and is inspired by the observation of a cat trying to pull a chicken through a fence, and only could move forward some of the feathers.
A single cotton gin could generate up to fifty-five pounds of cotton daily cleaning. This contributed the economic development of the southern states of the United States, the main cotton growing area, and some historians believe that this invention allows for the system African slavery in the southern United States to become more sustainable at a critical juncture in its development.
Whitney received a patent (later numbered X72) for his cotton gin March 14, 1794, but was not validated until 1807. Whitney and his partner Miller did not intend to sell the gins. Rather, as owners of grain and sawmills, they expected to charge farmers for cleaning their cotton – two fifths of the benefits payable on cotton. Resentment at this scheme, the mechanical simplicity of the device, and the primitive state of patent law, infringement inevitable. As Whitney Miller were unable to make enough gins to meet demand, imitation gin began to spread. Ultimately, patent infringement claims consumed by benefits and cotton ginning plant ceased operation in 1797. A high point so many times that Eli Whitney is originally suffered problems with its first design. There is significant evidence that the design flaws were solved by a woman named Katherine Green, Whitney gave no public credit or recognition.
While the cotton gin did not earn Whitney the fortune he had expected, which gave him fame and the cotton gin transformed agriculture in the South and the national economy. Southern cotton found ready markets in Europe and the flourishing textile mills in New England. Cotton agriculture revived the profitability of slavery and the political power of South proponents "peculiar institution." In the 1820's, the dominant themes in America policy were driven by "King Cotton" political balance between slave and free states and tariff protection for U.S. industry. The Southern cotton exports rise after the appearance of cotton gin (from 180,000 pounds of total cotton production in 1793 to 93 million tonnes in 1810) [citation needed], while manufacturing firms in New England struggled to compete against imported goods and cried by tariff protection. The cotton interests led the country into war with Mexico, expecting a major expansion of cotton agriculture. Cotton was a staple that could be stored for long periods and shipped long distances, unlike most agricultural food production.
Paradoxically, the cotton gin, a device that saves labor, helped preserve the weakening arguments for slavery, and cheap (slave) work was needed to harvest cotton. Later, the 20-century invention of the cotton picker reduced demands for labor-intensive cotton farming, and brought unemployment to many poor Southerners.
Milling machine
Main article: Milling
Machine tool historian Joseph W. Roe credited with the invention Eli Whitney's milling machine first. Subsequent work by other historians (Woodbury, Smith, Muir) suggests that Whitney was among a group of contemporaries in all developing milling machine about the same time (1814-1818). Therefore, any person can be defined as the inventor of the milling machine.
Later life and legacy
South side of Eli Whitney monument in Grove Street Cemetery, New Haven, Connecticut
North side of monument
Despite its origin humble, Whitney was keenly aware of the value of social and political connections. In building his arms business, he took full advantage of the connection that your condition Yale alumnus gave other graduates in good standing, as Secretary of War Oliver Wolcott (Class of 1778) and New Haven developer and political leader James Hillhouse. His 1817 marriage to Henrietta Edwards, granddaughter of the famous evangelist Jonathan Edwards, daughter of Pierpont Edwards, head of the Democratic Party in Connecticut, and first cousin Yale President Timothy Dwight, Federalist leader in the state, more tied to the ruling elite of Connecticut. In a business dependent on government contracts, these connections are essential for success.
Whitney died at age 59 of prostate cancer on January 8, 1825, in New Haven, CT, leaving a widow and four children. During During his illness, he invented and constructed several devices to ease his pain mechanically. These devices, designs of which are contained in their papers, be effective, but were never constructed for the use of others due to the unwillingness of his heirs "trade in" sensitive "items.
At his death, his arsenal was in charge of his talent nephews, Eli Whitney Blake and Philos Blake, notable inventors and manufacturers in their own right (who invented the lock and grinding machine stones).
Eli Whitney Blake (1820-1894) assumed control of the arsenal in 1841. Working under contract with the inventor Samuel Colt, the younger Whitney manufactured the famous "Whitneyville Walker Colts" for the Texas Rangers. The success of this contract Colt rescued from financial ruin and enabled him to establish his own famous arms company. Dalliba Whitney's marriage to Sarah, daughter of the chief of U.S. Army of the ordinance, helped to ensure the continued success of your business.
The younger Whitney organized by the Water Company of New Haven, which began operations in 1862. While this company need to address the city's water, but also allowed Whitney to increase the amount of energy available for production operations at the expense of the shareholders of the water company. A new dam has consolidated its operationsriginally located in three sites along the Mill Rivern a single plant. This dam still exists.
Whitney's grandson, Eli Whitney IV (1847-1924), sold Whitney Armory to Winchester Repeating Arms, another notable New Haven gun company in 1888. He served as chairman of the water company until his death and was a most important business in New Haven and civic leader. Played an important role in the development of Ronan-Edgehill Neighborhood of New Haven.
Following the closure of the armory, the factory continued to be used for a variety of industrial applications, including the water company. Many of the original armory buildings remained intact until the 1960's. In the decade of 1970, as part of the Bicentennial celebration, interested citizens organized the Eli Whitney Museum, which opened its doors to public in 1984. Currently, the site includes the pension and the barn, which served as Eli Whitney's original workers and a stone building of the armory storage original. Museum exhibits and programs are in a factory building constructed c. 1910. A water company office building constructed in the 1880 housing programs education operated by the South Central Connecticut Regional Water Authority (which succeeded the New Haven Water Company).
Eli Whitney and his descendants are buried in Street New Haven's historic Grove Cemetery. Yale College Eli Whitney Students Program, which is one of the four doors at the University of Yale, is the name of Whitney in recognition his venerable age at the time of entry of Yale University in 1789, he was twenty years old. Eli Whitney is the great-great deal of Eli Whitney Debevoise II, the U.S. current Executive Director of the World Bank Group.
Mr. Whitney was inducted into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 1975.
^ ab "Elms and Magnolias: The Century 18." Manuscripts and Archives, Library of Yale University. 16.08.1996. http://www.library.yale.edu/mssa/elms/18th.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
Abc ^ MIT Inventor of the Week profile file. From a web site funded and administered by Lemelson-MIT Program. Retrieved on March 18, 2008.
^ Who belongs to Phi Beta Kappa, Beta Kappa High website, accessed October 4, 2009
^ New Georgia Encyclopedia: Eli Whitney in Georgia accessed 19 March 2008.
^ Hounshell, David A. (1984), From American System to Mass Production, 1800-1932: The development of manufacturing technology United States, Baltimore, Maryland, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press, LCCN 83-016269, ISBN 978-0-8018-2975-8.
^ Woodbury, Robert S. (1960). "Legend Eli Whitney and interchangeable parts. "Technology and Culture 1.
^ Eli Whitney Project A website for the project of Eli Whitney
^ The Eli Whitney Museum and Workshop A website for the Eli Whitney Museum in Hamden, Connecticut.
^ "A Chronicle of Eminent People buried in Grove Street Cemetery." Friends of Grove Street Cemetery. http://www.grovestreetcemetery.org/Grove_Street_Cemetery_Chronicle_of_Eminent_People.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
Read more
Battison, Edwin. (1960). "Eli Whitney and the Milling Machine. "Smithsonian Journal of History I.
Cooper, Carolyn, and Lindsay, Merrill K. (1980). Eli Whitney and the Whitney Armory.
Whitneyville, CT: Eli Whitney Museum.
Dexter, Franklin B. (1911). "Eli Whitney." Yale Biographies and Annals, 1792-1805. New York, New York: Henry Holt & Company.
Hall, Karyl Lee Kibler, & Cooper, Carolyn. (1984). Windows in the Works: Industry on the Eli Whitney Site, 1798-1979.
Hamden, CT: Eli Whitney Museum
Hounshell, David A. (1984), From American System to Mass Production, 1800-1932: The development of manufacturing technology in the United States, Baltimore, Maryland, USA: Johns Hopkins University Press, LCCN 83-016269, ISBN 978-0-8018-2975-8.
Lakwete, Angela. (2004). The invention of the cotton gin, the machine and Myth in Antebellum America. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Smith, Merritt Roe. 1973. "John H. Hall, Simeon North, and the milling machine: The nature of innovation among Antebellum arms manufacturers. "Technology and Culture 14.
Woodbury, Robert S. (1960). "The Legend of Eli Whitney and parts interchangeable. "Technology and Culture 1.
Iles, George (1912), leading developer of America, New York: Henry Holt and Company, pp 75-103, http://www.archive.org/details/leadingamericani00ilesrich
External Links
The Eli Whitney Museum
Whitney Eli Whitney Biography Research Group
Inventor of the Week: Eli Whitney (MIT)
Entry into the New Georgia Encyclopedia
"Whitney, Eli." Encyclopdia Britannica (11 th ed.). 1911.
Whitney, Eli
American inventor
December 8, 1765 (12/08/1765)
Westborough, Massachusetts, United States
January 8, 1825
New Haven, Connecticut, United States
Categories: 1765 births | 1825 deaths | American business theorists | American engineers | American inventors | Burials at Grove Street Cemetery | Cancer deaths in Connecticut | Deaths from prostate cancer | English Americans | firearms designers | History of the textile industry | The machine tool builders | National Inventors Hall of Fame | People from Connecticut | People from Worcester County, Massachusetts | People of the Revolution Industrial | Westborough, Massachusetts | Whitney family | Yale University alumniHidden categories: Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism | Wikipedia Protected pages with expiry | All articles with statements without source | Items without source statements from January 2009 | Articles with statements without power September 2008 About the Author

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